Open your eyes

Fake news for dummies


The term “fake news” is increasingly regarded as inadequate as it is too nebulous and imprecise. A recent study of thirty-four academic papers (Tandoc et al, 2017) concluded that “fake news” encompasses a wide range of phenomena: news satire, news parody, fabrication, manipulation, advertising, and propaganda. The term “fake news” has also been rejected by the High-Level Expert Group (HLEG) appointed by the European Commission to advise on fake news and online disinformation (p.10; Buning et al, 2018).

Therefore, instead of “fake news” we adopt the information disorder theoretical framework (Wardle, 2017; Wardle & Derakshan, 2017), which defines three types of false and/or harmful information:

  • Mis-information: false information that is shared inadvertently, without meaning to cause harm.
  • Dis-information: intending to cause harm, by deliberately sharing false information.
  • Mal-information: genuine information or opinion shared to cause harm, e.g. hate speech, harassment.

The “Open Your Eyes” database will contain information about initiatives all over Europe teaching disinformation tactics and also tools and resources on how to educate target groups on disinformation. You will be able to sort out the information about initiatives per country, type, targeted audience, platforms addressed.

"The European Commission support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents which reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein ."

2019 Open your eyes